Physical Asset Management 301: Risk and Reliability Management (RCM SAE JA1011)


PAM 301 Risk and Reliability Management

The objective of maintenance over the last twenty years has steadily shifted from a 'prevention' approach to 'risk' based approach. This thinking has been spawned by the following factors:

  • Increasing complexity of systems with relatively high reliability at the component level but failures have become less predictable at the system level.
  • Equipment chained together into continuous processes, bigger pieces of equipment with higher capacities. Bigger losses when failures occur.
  • Lean processes with less in-process storage, lower inventory levels. Short duration downtime affecting output
  •  Rising expectations of customers wanting higher quality at lower prices in real terms. Organisations unable to adapt to these rising demands go out of business.
  • Workers, unions, passengers, consumers and the general public demand higher safety and environmental compliance. Industrial action, lawsuits and consumer resistance more prevalent.
  • Physical asset operators and owners are increasingly being held to a higher  'standard of care' with regard to their physical assets. 

Preventing all failures is generally not feasible from either a technical or an economical point of view. The airline industry attempted failure prevention until the mid 1970's and found with the increase in technology of modern equipment their traditional maintenance strategies did not have the desired result. Unfortunately many organisations are still applying these ineffective strategies.
Maintenance strategies must evolve to support the technological requirements of modern equipment and the challenges of a competitive and legislated environment.
To the same degree that financial auditors apply 'due diligence' to the management of an organisations financial assets, maintainers must apply due diligence in the management of physical assets. To the same degree that the justice system requires 'due process' in the implementation of the law, so should physical asset managers apply due process in the management of physical assets.  Unfortunately many physical asset managers are still managing their assets using gut feeling. Applying RCM in accordance with SAE JA1011 is still the only credible method for developing failure management strategies and tactics

Delegates are the team members that would participate in the development of a reliability programme/failure management programme (maintenance policies/tactics/strategy) for the physical assets of the organisation. Learners would include:

  • Maintenance and reliability engineers and engineers in training
  • Engineers involved in extensions, upgrades, procurement of new equipment
  • OEM design, engineers, field support technicians
  • Maintenance supervisors
  • Master craftsmen/artisans
  • Technicians
  • Inspectors
  • Operations supervisors
  • Maintenance planners 

After completing this workshop learners will better understand:

  • The meaning of 'due process' in the context of physical asset management
  • The meaning of 'standard of care' in the context of physical asset management
  • The meaning of 'due diligence' in the context of physical asset management
  • How to select systems for reliability and risk improvement
  • How to select team members to participate in a reliability and risk analysis project
  • How to set boundaries for an analysis
  • How to describe the operating context of a system
  • How to identify functions and appropriate performance standards 
  • How to define the failed states of a system
  • How to identify reasonably likely failure modes and mechanisms
  • When to 'black box' and when to analyse components separately
  • How to analyse the local, intermediate and end effects of failure modes
  • How to grade failure consequences in terms of type, severity and probability for risk assessment
  • How to associate a failure mode with a failure pattern and probability density curve
    The types of routine maintenance and under what conditions each type is effective
  • The types one-time changes and under what conditions each is type is effective
  • Under what conditions one-time changes are compulsory
  • How to use the decision diagram to select the most appropriate failure management policy
  • How determine the residual risk in order to determine of policies are effective
  • How to record the analysis and decision making process
  • How to prepare the results of the analysis for audit review
  • How to specify routine maintenance tasks and set standards for execution
  • How to package routine maintenance tasks for scheduling and execution
  • How to assign routine tasks to appropriate roles including operations
  • How to implement once-off changes
  • How to purge legacy policies from the organisation
  • How to implement decisions in the CMMS
  • How to restore optimal conditions to improve the effectiveness of routine maintenance
  • How to monitor and review the effectiveness of failure management policies in perpetuity
  • The role of root cause analysis in the failure management process 

Each topic is presented by means of short lectures, discussions followed by intensive practical application using real life case studies. This ensures that learners gain hands-on know-how so that they can participate effectively in risk and reliability projects at the workplace. Learners that gain a high level of competence in this course are candidates for further learning and could become risk and reliability management project facilitators

Day One

  • The History and Current State of Maintenance
    The current status of physical asset management
    'Due diligence' and physical asset management
    What happens when 'due diligence' is lacking
    Reliability defined
    Risk defined
  • Where to Start
    Plant/equipment decomposition
    Functional locations
    Criticality grading
    Performance gap analysis
    Short list of systems to review and boundary determination
  • Operational Context and Functional Analysis
    Define the operating context
    Identify primary, inherent and functions
    Determine desired versus designed performance expectations
    Practical: Perform Functional analysis
  • Failure Analysis
    Failed states
    Failure events, failure modes and the levels of causation
    Failure mechanisms
    Physical mechanism
    Human mechanisms
    The concept of 'reasonably likely'
    Failure effects, local, intermediate and end
    Practical: Perform Failure Analysis
  • Day Two
    Risk Management is Integral to Physical Asset Management
    Types of risks
    Operational and Financial
    Safety, health and environmental
    Hidden failure 
    Practical: Perform Risk Analysis
  • Risks Assessment
    Severity/consequence assessment
    Probability/likelihood assessment
    Grading of risk
    Develop a company specific risk grading matrix
    Practical: Perform Risk Assessment
  • Basic Failure Modes and Mechanisms
    Attrition inducing mechanisms
    Fracture inducing mechanisms
    Contamination related mechanisms
    Disassembly, misalignment, chemical breakdown and decay
    Temperature, flow, pressure, humidity, temperature shock, etc
    Policy selection risk criteria
    Human factors including physiological, psychological, anthropometric
    The six failure probability density curves
    Age related and random failures
    Introduction to the two parameter Weibull function
  • Day Three
    Risk Based Maintenance Strategies/Tactics/Policies
    Risk based policy decision making diagram
    Policy selection criteria
    Types of preventive maintenance and how to select appropriate intervals
    Types of condition based maintenance and how to determine the PF interval
    Function testing/failure finding and how to determine the interval
    Instrumented protective functions that are fail-to-safe
    One-time changes to improve reliability: Physical, procedural, human capability
    One-time changes to improve maintainability
    Risk tolerance and residual risk
    Determine residual risk
    Practical: Select and define appropriate maintenance policies/tactics/strategies
  • Implement Risk and Reliability Management
    Setting up risk and reliability analyisis projects
    Selection of team members
    The role of the facilitator
    Selecting and setting up the review projects
    Obstacles to the process and how to overcome them
    Auditing the decision making
    Implementing the results
  • Risk and reliability management in perpetuity
  • Post course assignment
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